How to Treat Flat Feet

Flat feet, a common condition where the arches on the inside of the feet are flattened, allowing the entire sole to touch the ground when standing, affects a significant portion of the population. While some individuals with flat feet experience no symptoms, others may encounter discomfort or pain, especially during physical activities. 

Understanding and treating flat feet is vital, not only for alleviating immediate discomfort but also for preventing potential long-term complications. This article by Manly Cove Podiatry provides an in-depth look at flat feet, covering everything from their causes and symptoms to a range of treatment options, offering insights for those looking to manage or treat this condition effectively.

Understanding Flat Feet

Flat feet, also known as fallen arches, is a condition characterised by the collapse or flattening of the foot’s arch. There are two main types of flat feet:

  • Flexible Flat Feet: This is the most common type and is characterised by an arch that is visible when the foot is not bearing any weight but flattens when standing. It’s often a hereditary condition and can develop during childhood or adolescence, persisting into adulthood.
  • Rigid Flat Feet: Unlike flexible flat feet, the arch is rigid and flat regardless of whether the foot is bearing weight or not. This type may be related to an underlying bone or joint condition or may develop as a result of injury or wear and tear.

Both types of flat feet can lead to challenges in foot functionality and discomfort. The condition can alter the alignment of the legs and might impact balance and gait. While some people are born with flat feet, others may develop them over time due to various factors including aging, injury, or wear and tear on the feet.

Causes of Flat Feet

The development of flat feet can be attributed to a variety of factors, which can be broadly categorised into genetic, environmental, and medical causes:

  • Genetic Factors: For many, flat feet are a hereditary condition passed down through families. Genetic structural abnormalities in the foot can lead to the development of flat arches.
  • Environmental and Lifestyle Influences: Factors such as prolonged standing, wearing inadequate footwear, or engaging in high-impact sports can contribute to the weakening of the arches over time.
  • Associated Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions like obesity, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis are known to increase the risk of developing flat feet. Additionally, conditions that affect the muscles, nerves, or ligaments in the foot, such as cerebral palsy, can lead to flat feet.

Symptoms and Complications

While some people with flat feet experience no symptoms, others may encounter a range of discomforts, particularly during activities that place stress on the feet. Common symptoms include:

  • Pain and Discomfort: Pain in the arches, heels, or along the bottom of the feet, often exacerbated by activity.
  • Fatigue in the Feet: A feeling of tiredness or fatigue in the feet, especially after long periods of standing or walking.
  • Altered Foot Mechanics: Changes in the way one walks, can lead to knee, hip, and back problems due to altered gait.
  • Swelling: Swelling along the inside of the ankle can also be a symptom of flat feet.

If left untreated, flat feet can lead to several complications, such as:

  • Arthritis: Altered foot mechanics can increase wear and tear on the joints, potentially leading to arthritis.
  • Shin Splints: Repeated stress on the feet can result in shin splints, a painful condition affecting the shin bone.
  • Bunions and Hammertoes: Changes in foot mechanics can lead to other foot deformities like bunions and hammertoes.

Diagnosis of Flat Feet

Physical Examination

A comprehensive examination by a podiatrist or orthopedic specialist is crucial. They will look for a visible arch in the foot while the patient stands and sits. The specialist may also observe the patient’s walking pattern to assess how the feet affect overall posture and gait.

Foot Examinations

The doctor will check for tenderness or pain in specific areas of the foot. Flexibility is assessed, along with looking for any signs of swelling or other foot deformities that often accompany flat feet.

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs might be conducted. These tests help in assessing the bones and tissues of the foot, determining the severity of the flat foot condition, and identifying any related complications like arthritis or tendon damage.

Conservative Treatment Options

Orthotic Devices and Supportive Footwear

Using custom orthotic devices and wearing shoes with proper arch support and cushioning are effective ways to support the arch and correct foot alignment. These devices help distribute weight across the foot more evenly.

Physical Therapy and Exercises

Physical therapy aims to strengthen the muscles around the foot and ankle, enhancing flexibility and reducing pain. Specific exercises such as arch lifts and calf stretches can be particularly beneficial in supporting the arch and improving foot function.

Lifestyle Modifications

Lifestyle changes, including maintaining a healthy weight and selecting low-impact exercises, can significantly alleviate the symptoms associated with flat feet. These modifications help in reducing the stress and pressure on the feet.

Advanced Treatment Options

In cases where conservative treatments don’t provide sufficient relief, advanced treatment options, including surgical interventions, might be considered.

Surgical Intervention

Surgery for flat feet is generally reserved for severe cases or when the condition leads to significant pain and mobility issues. Various surgical procedures can be performed, depending on the specific problems caused by flat feet. These might include reconstructing the arch, fusing certain bones in the foot, or lengthening the Achilles tendon. The recovery process from such surgeries can be lengthy and may require extensive physical therapy.

Post-Surgical Care

Post-surgical care is crucial for a successful outcome. This typically involves a period of rest, followed by physical therapy to restore strength and mobility. The use of orthotic devices may still be recommended after surgery to support the foot during the recovery phase.

Living with Flat Feet

Living with flat feet involves daily management to ensure comfort and prevent complications.

Daily Management Tips

Individuals with flat feet should pay special attention to their footwear, opting for shoes that offer good support and cushioning. Regular stretching and foot exercises can help maintain flexibility and reduce discomfort. It’s also important to listen to your body and avoid activities that cause foot pain.

Long-term Outlook

While flat feet can be a chronic condition, many people live active, pain-free lives with the right management strategies. Regular check-ups with a foot specialist can help monitor the condition and adjust treatment plans as needed. With proper care, the long-term outlook for individuals with flat feet is generally positive.

Prevention and Children’s Foot Health

Preventing flat feet, especially in children, can involve several proactive measures. Early intervention and monitoring can make a significant difference.

Preventative Measures

Regular check-ups with a pediatric podiatrist can help in identifying and addressing flat feet early in children. Encouraging activities that strengthen foot muscles, such as walking barefoot on various surfaces, can be beneficial. Also, ensuring that children wear properly fitting, supportive footwear as they grow is essential for healthy foot development.

Monitoring Children’s Foot Development

Parents should observe their children’s walking patterns and foot alignment. Any signs of persistent in-toeing, out-toeing, or complaints of foot pain should be evaluated by a specialist. Early detection of potential issues allows for timely interventions that can positively impact foot health as children grow.


Flat feet are a common condition that can affect individuals in various ways. Understanding the nature of flat feet, their causes, and the array of treatment options available is crucial for effective management. For those with flat feet, a combination of proper footwear, regular exercises, and, in some cases, medical intervention can lead to significant improvements in comfort and mobility.

Remember, each individual’s experience with flat feet is unique, and treatment should be tailored to their specific needs. If you have concerns about flat feet, whether for yourself or your child, consulting with a healthcare professional like Manly Cove Podiatry is the best course of action for personalised care and guidance.